Here is a quick list a company can refer to prior to issuing stock options to its employees. I’ve covered the basics of stock options in a previous post, as well as a more in depth pricing item related to stock options, but wanted this post to give the broad overview to founders. Read more
It used to be that if you wanted to start a corporation and the end goal was not to maximize shareholder value (or other typical corporate goals), you’d start a not-for-profit corporation. That’s no longer the case. Now in New York (and at least six other states) you can form a Benefit Corporation (a “B-corp”) which has other purposes besides making money. There are also other strategies you can use in a for-profit company to give it more of an egalitarian feel. We’ll discuss below. Read more
Another way to compensate employees of a corporation is to issue them Stock Appreciation Rights (“SARs” – not “sars – severe acute respiratory syndrome”, that’s something else). SARs grant employees, usually higher level executives, the right to receive stock and/or cash at a future date in an amount pegged to the increase in value of the corporation’s shares of stock over a certain time period. If the company’s share value increases, so to does the value of the SARs. SARs often are offered along with traditional stock options, although they are granted seperately (if done with stock options, sometimes you will see them called “Tandem SARs”). Read more
We’ve covered the bare basics of stock options on this blog before. Here we will look into something that is all important when issuing stock options – that is the option’s exercise price. The exercise price is the amount an option holder needs to pay in order to exercise the option to receive the share of underlying stock. Most option holders will not exercise their options until the price of the underlying stock has risen higher than the exercise price, so that they can receive the shares and then sell on the open market for a profit. The IRS got keen on the fact that a company could issue stock options with an artificially low exercise price, which would allow the option holder to immediately exercise the option to receive the shares with the greater value and sell those shares, which is in effect as if the company paid cash to the option recipient. Hence Section 409A voted into effect in the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004. The reason stock options can receive beneficial tax treatment is because they are treated as deferred compensation. To get that treatment, stock options should only be granted with exercise prices at or above the fair market value (“FMV”) of the underlying shares of stock on the date of the option grant.